Sequence of processes:
Downstream is the process in which the active pharmaceutical ingredients are purified. Contaminations
are removed in this stage. The first process that is done in this procedure is filtration. Filtration is a very
simple procedure. This procedure can be performed with a funnel and a filter paper. When this process is
done on a small level it is very easy. When we do this procedure on industry level we have to deal with a
lot of problems. Filtration in industry level is done in different parts.
Techniques of filtration:
The filtration process is done in three stages. In first stage we separate the solid and liquid particles of the
Separation of solid and liquid:
This is the first process in downtown streaming. In this process of downtown streaming we simply do
flotation. In this process we place the substance in a liquid tank. We supply a gas into the tank. The liquid
part of the substance forms bubbles. The bubble lift up from the surface and can they are carried out in a
separate tank with help of a vessel. The solid articles stays in the first tank. Now we have separated the
solid and liquids. After this process we have to purify the solid. For that purpose we do flocculation.
In downstream processing this process is done by settling the groups of cells. This process is done using
many chemical agents. These agents helps the ionic cells to form a group. We the groups are made they
can separate from the other particles easily.
Precautions in the processes:
1) In downstream processing the solid and liquid process, make sure the air pressure is normal.
They bubbles will not move if the air pressure is not satisfactory.
2) The second tank so should be completely dry. Any impurity can cause trouble for the liquid.
3) The vessel should be air tight. The vessel should not have any leakage in it.
4) In the process of flocculation in downstream processing the agents should be placed in a
5) When the groups are made separate the agents form the substance.